Sunday, May 21, 2017


            Does the homestead look abandoned because of the weeds in the landscaping? Do you try to keep them clean out, but in a couple weeks see them poking their mischievous little heads out of the soil?

   A ground cover of either stone or bark will help eliminate this problem.


            Wood bark may be used on all sides of the house. It contrasts well with light colored houses, and holds moisture in the soil longer; shallow rooted plants like Azaleas, Rhododendrons, and Japonicas do well with this as their Planting mix.

            There are a number of different kinds of bark products: shredded hardwood bark, fines or processed bark, redwood bark, cedar bark, red pine bark, cypress bark, wood chips, shredded wood and so on. All have a different look, they also have to be applied at least 3-4 inches thick if you are starting from scratch.

            Before you start, be sure to dig a 4" deep by 6" wide trench right next to your edging, on the landscape side. If you do not have edging, now, would be a good time to install it; it not only keeps the grass out, but also keeps the ground cover in.

            The trench will allow you to put a thick layer of bark right up to the edging. If you go ground level to ground level on both sides of the edging you will have to pile up the bark near the edging to keep the weeds down, and not see the dirt. You will find that the bark will constantly be falling out into the yard without this trench.

            Putting the bark down at 3-4 inches thick will smother out any weeds or seed wanting to grow from underneath, and make it impossible for them to get a foot hold on top because the first two inches dry out so fast.

            Do not put any plastic or weed cloth down. Bark breaks down and turns into dirt; and in two years you will have a rootable soil layer for weeds. A 2-inch layer of new bark every 2 years will not only freshen up the landscape but also keep the weeds under control.

           Above is the right way to mulch around trees

           There is a painted wood mulch on the market that seems to have a lasting capability of well over 3 years, I've seen some go as long as 4 if you don't mind a little fading. It's just less than double the price of shredded bark but can last Three to four time longer or more. It comes in three colors; brown, tan, and a redwood color.

            Stone products come in a wide variety of looks as well. Most Garden centers with handle 1"-2" stone, 2"-3" stone, limestone, and red or black lava rock. Places like Grand Rapids Gravel stocking items like pea gravel 1" stone, and cracked stone.  Some Garden Centers handle several kinds of colored stone, but after looking them all over you haven't seen one that catches your eye, give The Stone Zone a try on Remembrance west of Wilson in Walker they have the largest selection I know of.

            The procedure is about the same as the bark in regards to trenching, but there are some things that are different.

            Stone should not go on the south side of a house. The intense summer heat bakes the stone to a point that the night hours are not long enough to cool it back down, thus the roots never get a break from the heat.

            A big advantage to having stone is, it never breaks down, so plastic or fabric can be used to eliminate the weed problem. If you are using plastic be sure to cut big enough hole around the plants for watering; usually a foot out from the center of the plant will be sufficient in the case of new plantings. An application of stone 3 inches thick would be enough to hide the plastic or weed cloth; any more stone would be a waste.

            To figure out how much stone or bark you will need multiply the width of your area by the length and divide by 80 if you are going to spread bark; and 100 if you are going to spread stone.

            A little time and sweat spent now will save a lot of time, sweat, and frustration later.

If you have any questions feel free to e-mail me at or post a comment on this Blog. And like us on Facebook at Niemeyer Landscaping. For more Landscape and garden info and pictures on the subject check us out at

Sunday, May 14, 2017

GROWING TOMATOES:                                        by Doug Niemeyer

            The tomato is probably the plant most widely grown by home gardeners. A fine source of vitamins A and C, the common tomato is easily grown in almost any back yard garden. But to grow them, automatically puts you into the silent world of Neighbor against Neighbor, Gardener against Gardener.
             Attitudes of being jovial are just mere fronts; the real reason for your sudden interest in your neighbor's "fat-lady-bending-over-in-the-garden" decor is to check out how his "matoes" are doing.  You would sneak over under cover of darkness but the risk of being caught would bring irreversible shame on your abilities as a grower, so you resort to the darker side of gardening, the slimy underworld of "daylight espionage".
            Deep in our hearts we ask why is it so important that I have the first ripe tomato?
            We ask, why is my ability as a gardener hanging on the performance of this plant?                         Why is it that we treat this "race for the red" like it's written in stone somewhere, that failure to be victorious would bring about swift and grievous punishment?
            Why we ask? Tell us why? Why?
            I don't know? It’s been going on for generations. I remember our neighbor enjoying a brief moment of conquest until my mother, with a keen eye and a great disdain for losing, noticed the object of his boasting was really and red rubber ball.
            How childish, now petty, now insecure. Well keep on reading and I'll show you how you too can "stick it" to the gardener next door.

            To start with it would be good to note that the tomato originated in Mexico and South America. This information is important. Any time you try to grow a plant that is not native to our climate zone it would be worth your while to look at its natural habitat growing conditions. In these countries you have good spring rains with hot, dry summers; keep this in mind.

            To get the jump on old Gus the Gardener next door start your own seedlings indoors about the first of March, if you have a window at least 2 feet wide facing south. Or buy the biggest plants you can find at the Garden Center and keep them by the South facing windows until planting time.

            If you save this article for next year seed selections should center on these early varieties; Summerset, Oregon Spring, Santiam, Early Cascade and Early Girl. There are probably others so you may want to check your seed catalogs.
            Once you've received your seeds, find and fill an old, clean, flower flat with potting soil, not topsoil. Sow one seed per cell and cover it with a very light layer of vermiculite, you can obtain this at any good garden center. Water the flat by misting it with a very clean spray bottle until the flat feels heavy. With this done, stretch some saran-wrap over the top of the flat and place it in the oven, and turn on the oven light only. The light will keep the temperature between 75 and 85 degrees, perfect for germination, which should be in about 6 to 8 days.
            Watch them carefully; don't let them stay in the oven to long. As soon as they germinate take the flat out and remove the saran-wrap a place it under a simple, double bulb fluorescent shop light. These bulbs must be placed no more than 3 inches from the plants, and should be put on a timer set to stay on for 12 hour and be off for 12.
            As the plants grow move the light so they stay three inches from the foliage. When the plants reach about four inches high transplant the strongest ones into as many four inch pots as you would like or have room for in front of the window that faces south. I don't need to mention the “potting soil” again, do I?     
            When transplanting, give notice to the little hairs growing outward on the stem, each one of these are a potential root, more roots, stronger the plant. 
You can start introducing them to sunlight out on the sill; starting out at a half-hour a day and increasing it each sunny day by a half-hour.
            When they double their height, double their pot size area. For example four inch pot to six inch pot, then to eight inch, finishing them in ten inch pots; each time planting them deep to encourage the stem hair roots to grow. Of course your window sill will not be able to hold all the pots as they increase in size; just fine other sunny locations in the mean time.
            Fertilizing is very important and should not be overlooked or over done.
            Purchase water soluble, strong middle number types like Miracle Grow 15-30-15 Shultz 20-30-20 or Peters 10-50-10. Phosphorus, the middle number, is a root and bloom builder, stay away from fertilizers that have large first numbers (nitrogen) they will cause the young plants to bypass the fruiting stage and produce only leaves and weak stems.
            Fertilizing should go as follows; from cell flat to six inch pots water with half the manufactures recommended mix for container grow plants. From eight inch on up just follow the directions on the fertilizer container.

            When it comes time to put them out into the garden do this about as gradually as when you put them out on the sill. First day out in the sun for an hour, second day 2 hours, and so on with planting on a cloudy day if possible. Store bought plants can go directly into the garden, but keep plant covers handy if they call for a frosty night.
            Watering should be often in the spring to maintain at least an inch per week. During the summer months the natural occurring rains should be plenty but don't let a drought last more than 2 1/2 weeks.
            From here on the care is simple. Remove any suckers that would grow up in the fork of the stems. These vegitational leaches only sap energy from the stems that are producing the tomatoes. Fertilize with a granular type tomato food by following the directions on the bag.
            Tomato cages or tying up the vines on stout sticks not only makes for a neat and tidy garden, but supplies good air flow throughout the plants, and this will cut down on diseases.
            Tomatoes have a built-in insecticide called solanine that will repel many insect pests. One serious pest that seems to be immune is the tomato hornworm. This big green worm with white stripes and a vicious looking, but harmless horn sticking up on its back end, is easy to hand pick and destroy. Japanese beetles, cutworms, and Colorado potato beetles can also be a problem, but rarely; sprays and dusts are available if they become a real problem.
            Cut Worms take a bite out of young seedlings thus ending the plants life. A reader wrote in saying he uses plastic drinking straws, (bigger the better). He cuts them a 1 ½” long and slits them up the side and fits them on the stems. Because they are slit they will not constrict the plant as it grows.
            Nematodes or eelworms have neither brains or eyes and move around in the soil in what appears to be an aimless pattern. The pattern however, does have a direction, for they will head straight toward any root that is near them. Once they arrive, they pierce the root and feed on it, or lay their eggs in it, causing knots to form. The plant will then lose nourishment and become stunted, or die.
            *Nematodes can be discouraged by planting marigolds or even planting tomatoes in soil where marigolds grew the year before.
            *Blossom drop may occur wherever tomatoes are grown, but the trouble seems to be especially prevalent where soil moisture is low and the plants are subjected to hot, drying winds.  Such conditions prevent blossoms from setting fruit, as do sudden periods of cool weather or beating rains. Keep up the watering, tomatoes like an inch of water a week through June and a half inch every two weeks from July on.  
            *Blossom-end rot is a dark water-soaked spot that first appears near the blossom end of the tomato when the fruit is about 1/3 of the way to maturity. A deficiency of calcium is the basic cause of the trouble, but that condition is aggravated by excessive nitrogen. If you grow tomatoes in a pot don't use fertilizer high in nitrogen like Peter's 20-20-20, choose one with a bigger middle number.
            *Fusarium wilt has no known chemical control, for the fungus draws up into the plant and kills it from within; this means that no topical fungicides will touch it. It is characterized by an overall wilting of the plant, beginning with yellowing and death of the leaves from the base upward. The only thing you can do is purchase plants that have the letter F somewhere on the tray tag. This means this variety is a little more resistant. Rotation will help also; plant tomatoes in a different place next year.
            *Growth cracks just make the tomato look bad. They can happen when there is a lot of rain right after a hot spell, or a dry period followed by a heavy rain during the ripening season.
            *Leaf roll is due to very wet soil. If you have clay soil you may want to till some sand and peat moss into the clay. This will also combat soil rot.
            *Tobacco mosaic virus also called tomato virus comes in two strains. The green strain causes light and dark green mottling of the foliage with curling and slight malformation of the leaflets. The yellow strains cause yellow mottling of the leaves and sometimes of the stems and fruit, as well as curling, distortion, and dwarfing of the foliage.
            The virus is present to some extent in practically all cigar, cigarette, and pipe tobaccos, so smokers are very likely to carry the virus on their hands and should wash them with soap and water or milk before doing anything with tomatoes.
            *One last thing to mention is that tomatoes will not grow near a black walnut tree, because of the acid this tree gives off through their root system.
            When growing tomatoes keep these three things in mind; keep them up, either in cages or on a stick, keep them watered in the spring, keep them rotated.

            There you have it, go out and conquer! But remember “Play Fair” this isn’t a “blood sport ya know!

   If you have questions: A You Tube enhanced version of this article is on our WEB site at along with a daily gardening Blog with timely information. Also, like us on Facebook at Niemeyer Landscaping.

Sunday, May 7, 2017

COMPANION PLANTING                                                  by Douglas Niemeyer

            It’s getting near that time. You are pouring over the seed catalogs, going on line to research the best varieties, mapping out the best use of your garden plot. But before you start planting, let’s look at a planting technique rarely addressed; it’s called companion planting.
            Over the years people have found that certain plant do well together. Some plants lure insects away from others; others bring them in to aid in pollination. The roots of those "pigs" of the soil” don’t seem to bother those plants that  “sit on their shoulders” so to speak, like small birds on a Rhino’s back picking little bits here and there, both are satisfied, both live well together, friends in the wild, co-existing, happy as clams.
But a garden is not a wild situation, it’s man made, man planned. Take Gardener Gus for example, well meaning in his desire to grow fresh veggies for the family but shows cluelessness in the area of “horticultural match making” by pairing up “Tomato Two Ton” with “Ms. Lettuce Consume”; two botanical hogs that will eating themselves to starvation. He doesn’t know, he means well.
So, for every friend a plant may have, there are some that don’t mix well, Bullies and Thugs, enemies if you will. Let’s take a look at what veggies play well together and which don’t.

THE VEGTABLE:              FREINDLIES:                                                          ENEMIES

ASPARAGUS                                    Tomatoes, Parsley & Basil                                          Onions & Garlic

BEANS                                   Potatoes, Bush beans, Carrots, Peas,                          Beets, Cabbage, Pole
                                                Cauliflower, Eggplant, Cucumbers, Corn,                  Beans, Onion, Kohlrabi,
                                                Radishes, Summer Savory, Celery, Parsnips,

BROCCOLI                           Onions, Herbs                                                             Strawberries, Tomatoes,
                                                                                                                                    Pole Beans

BRUSSELS SPROUTS         Carrots, Herbs                                                             Strawberries, Tomatoes,
                                                                                                                                    Pole Beans

CABBAGE                            Beets, Carrots, Bush Beans, Lettuce,                         Strawberries, Tomatoes,
                                                Spinach, Onions, Cucumbers, Kale,                           Pole Beans
                                                Potatoes, Celery, Herbs, Dill, Sage

CANTALOUPES                   Corn                                                                            None

CARROTS                             Beans, peas, Tomatoes, Onions, Leeks,                      Dill, Celery, Parsnips,
                                                Brussels sprouts, Peppers, Cabbage, Leaf
                                                Lettuce, Red Radishes, Chives

CAULIFLOWER                   Beets, Carrots, Bush Beans, Lettuce,                         Strawberries, Tomatoes,
                                                Spinach, Onions, Cucumbers, Kale,                           Pole Beans
                                                Potatoes, Celery, Herbs, Dill, Sage

CELERY                                Cabbage, Cauliflower, Leeks, Tomatoes,                   Carrots, Parsnips
                                                Bush Beans, Peas

CORN                                     Beans, Peas, Early Potatoes, Cucumbers,                   None
                                                Cantaloupes, Squash, Cabbage, Parsley

CUCUMBERS                       Beans, Peas, Corn, Tomatoes, Cabbage,                     Potatoes, Herbs, Sage
                                                Lettuce, Radishes, Dill

EGGPLANT                           Beans, Peppers                                                            None

KALE                                     Cabbage, Herbs                                                           None

KOHLRABI                           Beets, Lettuce, Onions                                               Tomatoes, Pole Beans

LEEKS                                   Celery, Carrots, Onions                                              Peas, Beans

LETTUCE                              Beets, Carrots, Radishes, Kohlrabi, Straw-                None
                                                Berries, Cabbage, Onions, Basil, Cucumbers

LIMA BEANS                       Beets, Radishes                                                           None

ONIONS & GARLIC                        Beets, Tomatoes, Broccoli, Peppers, Leeks,               Beans, Peas, Asparagus
                                                Kohlrabi, Lettuce, Cabbage, Summer Savory
                                                Carrots, Strawberries, parsnips, Turnips

PARSLEY                              Asparagus, Tomatoes, Corn                                        None

PARSNIPS                             Bush Beans, Peppers, Potatoes, Peas                          Carrots,Celery,Caraway
                                                Radishes, Onions, Garlic

PEAS                                      Radishes, Carrots, Cucumbers, Corn,                         Onions, Gladiolus
                                                Beans Turnips, Celery, Potatoes

PEPPERS                               Tomatoes, Eggplant, Onions, Carrots,                        None

POTATOES                            Beans, Cabbage, Corn, Peas, Marigolds,                    Pumpkins, Squash,
                                                Horseradish, Eggplant, (to lure the Colorado             Cucumbers, Turnips,
                                                Potato Beetle) Parsnips                                               Tomatoes, Raspberry

PUMPKIN                              Corn, Eggplant, Radishes                                           Potatoes

RADISHES                            Peas, Pole Beans, Leaf Lettuce, Carrots,                    None
                                                Cucumbers, Lima Beans, Chervil, Parsnips

SPINACH                              Cabbage, Strawberries                                                None

SQUASH                                Corn,                                                                           Potatoes

STRAWBERRIES                 Lettuce, Spinach, Beans, Onions, Borage                  Cabbage

TOMATOES                          Asparagus, Peppers, Celery, Onions,                          Dill, Potatoes, Fennel
                                                Carrots, Cucumbers, Basil, Parsley, Mint                   Cabbage, Kohlrabi

TURNIPS                               Peas and most vegetables, including Onion               Potatoes

            Some people plant gardens, others plant gladiator schools. If you follow this plant info guide you will produce a friendly place where they will “all just get along”.

   If you have questions: A You Tube enhanced version of this article is on our WEB site at along with a daily gardening Blog with timely information. Also, like us on Facebook at Niemeyer Landscaping.

Sunday, April 30, 2017


            This is the month for planting everything that's anything, so go out and dig and plant, water and weed.


            Early in the month make the first planting of snap beans, Swiss chard, and herbs. Check seed packets for suggested spacing. In smaller gardens, space rows a little closer than recommended. Do not crowd them any closer in the rows, the plants won't have enough space to develop properly.  Thin radishes, lettuce, spinach, carrots, and beets as needed.

            Cultivate shallow at least once a week to keep soil loose and weeds down. Side-dress with fertilizer and mulch when plants have established themselves. Asparagus will continue heavy production through early May. When emerging spears are pencil thin, stop picking, but do fertilize and mulch heavily.

            About mid-month, plant warm-weather crops such as corn, lima beans, pole and bush beans, pumpkins, summer and winter squash. Continue making succession plantings (plant some radished – wait two week – plant some more radishes – wait two weeks…) of beets, carrots, radishes, spinach and lettuce.

            In mid to late May, transplant peppers, eggplant, squash, melons and herb seedlings into the garden. Water heavily and frequently if spring is dry, but do not mulch yet.

            When buying tomatoes pick those that are dark green in color, with thick stems and no yellow leaves. Pick off all flowers and tomatoes, they will sap the plant's energy now when it's trying to establish itself in a new environment. When planting, burying as much as 3" of the stem; the little hairs you see are potential roots. Tomatoes need full sun but plant them on a cloudy day, so they can adjust to their new home before getting a daylong dose of sunshine. 


            As new shoots appear in perennial beds during early May, side-dress generously with a good organic fertilizer. Divide Mums and Shasta daisies as soon as growth begins. After the last frost, sow snapdragons, four-o'clocks, marigolds, asters, nasturtium, tuberoses, zinnias, and other tender flowers and bulbs.

            Pinch back mums at the end of the month. Prune mock orange, forsythia, flowering almond, and other spring-flowering shrubs after blossoms fade. A good rule when it comes to pruning flowering shrubs is to prune them after their flowers fade. Most flowering shrubs set their flowering sequence for next year soon after the flowers die.

            Keep an eye open for bagworms on evergreens and shrubs. Also tent worms are starting at this time. Check lilacs for scale; scrape off now before it spreads.

            Do not cut off leaves of spring bulb flowers until they have yellowed naturally. But do snip out the seedpods that form after the flower fades.

            Do not remove ants from peonies; no ants no blooms. To get bigger blooms remove the inferior buds that surround the terminal or main bud at the end of each stalk.

            Remove seedpods after lilac have flowered.

            Start spraying your roses with a fungicide every 10 days until a temperature of 85 degrees prevails during the day.

            Remove spent Rhododendron flowers, the seeds they try to grow will only sap energy better used else where on the plant. Feed them at this time with a Rhodo fertilizer.


            Early in the month, fruit set on trees should begin fleshing out. Remove misshapen or damaged sets. Thin lightly if trees are exceptionally crowed, but hold off on serious thinning until after June fruit drop. Remove suckers and water sprouts from apple trees.

            Check trees for codling moth (tiny white moths laying white eggs that hatch into thread-size worms, which burrow into immature fruits). Spray as necessary, which is every time you think about it. Do not spray insecticides while flowers are setting fruit, bees may be killed.

            Cut back black raspberry shoots when they reach 30 inches.

            Pinch blossoms from this year's planting of strawberries. Mulch between them with pine needles, clean straw, grass clippings or well-rotted compost. In established beds, remove and destroy strawberry plants showing signs of disease.

            Plant strawberries at this time. Make sure that the crowns are planted at ground level. If planted to deep the struggle to push foliage through the dirt will exhaust the plant and berry production will be light. If to the crown is to high it will freeze and die.


            Reseeding can begin at this time. An application of a seed starter fertilizer would give the grass seed a jump on the weed seeds that may blow in.

            If the month has been warm Weed-N-Feeds may be applied to established lawns at the end of the month.

   If you have questions A You Tube enhanced version of this article is on our WEB site at along with a daily gardening Blog with timely information. Also, like us on Facebook at Niemeyer Landscaping.

Sunday, April 23, 2017


PLANTING THE GARDEN                                                             By Douglas Niemeyer


            You were impressed with the last week’s “expense to return” numbers weren’t you? Pulled out your calculator and rechecked my math didn’t ya. Figured that just Home Gardening can let some of the costly air out of your ballooning grocery budget. Yes it is “sweat of the brow” activity but the only down side to that is a good calorie burn and a few lost pounds. Which in turn means greater cardio vascular flow, which produces a better oxygen absorption; which improves ones health and  keeps you off the phone to your family doctor. Wow, the “expense to return” numbers just keep getting bettcouldn’t be right; but it was, wasn’t it?

            er and better don’t they?


            There are a few things you should have on hand as you venture down this cornucopia of good taste and windfall potential. Enough garden hose to reach your little bit of Kansas, a hand cultivator for weeding between the plants, a hoe fro weeding between the rows, (or a rototiller, a bit pricey but sure does make short order out of weeding between the rows) a hard tine rake for smoothing out the hoeing or tilling clumps before you plant. A hand trowel or small hand shovel for planting. Some string and a couple sticks to mark the rows as you plant; and a few more sticks to mark each row you plant.

            A pail of some sort is real handy to have around for weeding; a wheel barrow is nice but not a necessity. Scarecrows add to the “look” in the garden but only need to be there for nostalgia, I haven’t run into too many flocks of crows. Plastic owls do a good job of keeping out the undesirables, but the rodents will get wise to it if you don’t move  every 2 or 3 days. Tomato cages, or good stout sticks are a good idea for keeping your tomatoes out of the dirt


            Below is a list of popular garden vegetables and there planting requirements. Don’t get greedy here and think you can plant them a little closer together, trust me, you can’t. Plants need freedom to expand below ground just as much as they do above ground; crowding restricts grows; fewer the roots fewer the stems; fewer the stems fewer the stuff you like to eat.








THE PRODUCE:                                    DEPTH & SPACING BETWEEN PLANTS


ASPARAGUS                                                12” deep, 18” between each other in row, and 3’ to 4’ between rows


BEANS (bush)                                    1” deep (seed), 3-4” between each other in row, 20” between rows


BEANS (pole)                                                1” deep (seed), 4-6 seeds per pole,  6” between rows


BEETS                                                ½” deep (seed), 2-4” between each other in row, 16” between rows


BROCCOLI                                       ¼” deep (seed), 14” between each other in row, 16” between rows


BRUSSELS SPROUTS                     ¼” deep (seed), 14” between each other in row, 16” between rows


CABBAGE                                        ¼” deep (seed), 14” between each other in row, 16” between rows


CANTALOUPES                                                       ¾ - 1” deep (seed), 4-6’ between each other


CARROTS                                         ¼” deep (seed), 1-2” between each other in row, 16” between rows


CAULIFLOWER                               ¼” deep (seed), 8-10” between each other in row, 20” between rows


CORN                                                 1” deep (seed), 8-12” between each other in row, same between rows


CUCUMBERS                                                           ½-1” deep (seed), 4’-6’ between each other


EGGPLANT                                       ½ ” deep (seed), 12” between each other in row, 16” between rows


KOHLRABI                                       ¼” deep (seed), 3-4” between each other in row, 16” between rows


LEEKS                                               1” deep (sets), 3-4” between each other in row, 20” between rows


LETTUCE                                          ¼” deep (seed), 10” between each other in row, 16” between rows

LIMA BEANS                               1-1 ½ ” deep (seed), 3-6” between each other in row, 16” between rows


OKRA                                                            ½ ” deep (seed), 10-12” between each other in row, 16” between


ONIONS & GARLIC                                    1-2” deep (sets), 2-4” between each other in row, 20” between rows


PARSNIPS                                         ¼” deep (seed), 1-2” between each other in row, 16” between rows


PEAS                                                  1” deep (seed), 2-4” between each other in row, 16-36”between rows


PEPPERS                                           ½ ” deep (seed), 12” between each other in row, 16” between rows


POTATOES                                        5” deep (sets), 14” between each other in row, 24” between rows


PUMPKIN                                          1” deep (seed), 5-8’ between each other in row, 6-10’ between rows


RADISHES                                        ¼” deep (seed), 1-2” between each other in row, 16” between rows


SPINACH                                          ¼” deep (seed), 3-5” between each other in row, 16” between rows


SQUASH (summer & zucchini)                                 ½-1” deep (seed), 3-4’ between each other


SQUASH (winter)                              1” deep (seed), 5-8’ between each other in hills, 6-10’ between rows


SWISS CHARD                                 ½-1” deep (seed), 4-6” between each other in row, 16” between rows

TOMATOES                                      ¼” deep(seed), 18-36” between each other in row, 36” between


TURNIPS                                           ¼” deep (seed), 6-8” between each other in row, 16” between rows


WATERMELON                               ½-1” deep (seed), 5-8’ between each hill, 6-10’ between rows


   If you have questions: A You Tube enhanced version of this article is on our WEB site at along with a daily gardening Blog with timely information. Also, like us on Facebook at Niemeyer Landscaping.